Trichomonas in Women

Results from a randomized controlled trial in Uganda, showed reduced Trichomonas vaginalis (adjusted prevalence risk ratio [adjPRR] 0.52), bacterial vaginosis (adjPRR 0.60) and severe bacterial vaginosis (prevalence RR 0.39), as well as genital ulceration (adjusted PRR 0.78) in women whose male partner was in the circumcised arm of the trial [Gray et al., 2009a]. Thus the risk of Trichomonas vaginalis was 48% lower in the wives of the men who were in the circumcised arm of the trial. It was suggested that the moist nature of the subpreputial space might enhance the survival of Trichomonas.

In suburban Sydney, Australia, 3.4% of women were found to be infected with Trichomonas [McIver et al., 2009]. Other microorganisms and their prevalence (in brackets) in cervical swabs in this study were:  cytomegalovirus (6.0%), enterovirus (2.1%), Epstein-Barr virus (2.6%), varicella-zoster virus (0.4%), herpes simplex virus type 1 (2.6%), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (0.8%), HSV-2 + VZV (0.4%), Ureaplasma parvum (57%), Ureaplasma urealyticum (6.1%), Mycoplasma genitalium (1.3%), and Mycoplasma hominis (13.7%), Chlamydia trachomatis (0.4%) Trichomonas vaginalis (3.4%), and group B streptococci (0.4%).

For more see systematic reviews [Grund et al., 2017; Morris et al., 2019b].


Bacterial vaginosis in women.

Circumcision Info

What is circumcision?
Who in the world gets circumised?
The circumcision debate.
Circumcision history and recent trends.
Position statements by national pediatric bodies.
Why the foreskin increases infection risk.
Circumcision - 'shapshot' of health benefits + reviews.
Different specialists see different things.
Circumcision - benefits outweigh the risks.
Pain and memory.
Penile hygiene.
What motivates parents to baby boy circumcision.
Rates of circumcision.
Physical problems.
Inflammatory dermatoses.
Urinary tract infections.
Sexually transmitted infections.
Cancer of the penis.
Prostate cancer.
Cervical cancer in female partners of uncircumcised men.
Breast cancer in female partners of uncircumcised men.
Herpes simplex type 2 virus in women.
Chlamydia in women.
Trichomonas in women.
Bacterial vaginosis in women.
HIV: the AIDS virus.
Circumcision Socio-sexual aspects.
Circumcision - sensitivity, sensation & sexual function.
Circumcision - societal class distinction.
Circumcision prevents infibulation.
Circumcision procedure.
Circumcision & Anesthesia.
Cost of the Circumcision procedure.
Cost benefit of Circumcision.
Circumcision - how do I find someone to do it?.
Circumcision - whose responsibility?
Risks in infants.
Circumcision - risks in adults & older boys.
Circumcision - breastfeeding outcomes and cognitive ability.
Circumcision, does it affect penis length?
Circumcision - why are human males born with a foreskin?
Circumcision - best not to delay til later.
Circumcision - what caused many cultures to ritually remove the foreskin?
In Alphabetical Order
(A – I)(J – R)(S – Z)
Brochures, circumcision information guide.
Anti Circumcision
Anti-circumcision lobby groups.
Links & Resources
Circumcision websites & online discussion groups.
BOOK: "In Favour of Circumcision".
About the Author - Professor Emeritus Brian J. Morris.
Adult circumcision stories - testimonials and more.
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