What is Circumcision?

Circumcision is the removal of a simple fold of skin (the `foreskin' or `prepuce') that covers the head (glans) of the un-erect penis.

Penis Pictures

The amount of this skin varies from virtually none to a considerable amount that droops down from the end of the flaccid penis. Thus, in some men, during an erection, the head of the penis peeks out from the loose foreskin that surrounds it. But in men with a lot of foreskin the head of the penis remains covered, either partially or completely.

A questionnaire-based survey conducted by Badger in Sydney, Australia found that among men with a foreskin, in 67% the foreskin not only covered the glans of the penis when flaccid, but there was extra skin hanging off the end, in 15% it just covered the glans, in another 15% it half covered the glans, and in 4% the glans was bare.

In the erect state these numbers were 15% extra skin, 22% still covered, 32% half covered, and 41% glans bare.

Racial differences exist. For example, in Malaysia, New Guinea, Sri Lanka and southern India the foreskin is very long and ends in a narrow extension that acts like a muzzle. This is an impediment to sexual intercourse, so that circumcision facilitates procreation for these men.

A short prepuce that rarely covers the glans completely is seen in Whites of the northern Mediterranean and many Asians (Chinese and Japanese).

In uncircumcised males the head of the penis is pink. This becomes more apparent when the head of the penis emerges during an erection, giving the overall penis a "two-toned" look.

In male babies the foreskin is lightly attached to the penis underneath it, much like the skin on an orange, and comes free over the course of the first few years of life in most. By this analogy the foreskin can be readily separated from the main body of the penis at the start of a circumcision. A variety of methods are, moreover, used to remove the foreskin, and the amount eliminated can also vary, depending on technique. More on methods of circumcision later.

Could it be that there is an underlying practical health, sex-related or evolutionary reason that would explain why circumcision is such a common procedure in many diverse cultures?


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Who in the world gets circumcised?

Circumcision Info

1. What is circumcision?
2. Who in the world gets circumised?
3. The circumcision debate.
4. Circumcision history and recent trends.
5. Position statements by national pediatric bodies.
6. Why the foreskin increases infection risk.
7. Circumcision - 'shapshot' of health benefits + reviews.
8. Different specialists see different things.
9. Circumcision - benefits outweigh the risks.
10. Pain and memory.
11. Penile hygiene.
12. What motivates parents to baby boy circumcision.
13. Rates of circumcision.
14. Physical problems.
15. Inflammatory dermatoses.
16. Urinary tract infections.
17. Sexually transmitted infections.
18. Cancer of the penis.
19. Prostate cancer.
20. Cervical cancer in female partners of uncircumcised men.
21. Breast cancer in female partners of uncircumcised men.
22. Herpes simplex type 2 virus in women.
23. Chlamydia in women.
24. Trichomonas in women.
25. Bacterial vaginosis in women.
26. HIV: the AIDS virus.
27. Circumcision Socio-sexual aspects.
28. Circumcision - sensitivity, sensation & sexual function.
29. Circumcision - societal class distinction.
30. Circumcision prevents infibulation.
31. Circumcision procedure.
32. Circumcision & Anesthesia.
33. Cost of the Circumcision procedure.
34. Cost benefit of Circumcision.
35. Circumcision - how do I find someone to do it?.
36. Circumcision - whose responsibility?...legal
37. Risks in infants.
38. Circumcision - risks in adults & older boys.
39. Circumcision - breastfeeding outcomes and cognitive ability.
40. Circumcision, does it affect penis length?
41. Circumcision - why are human males born with a foreskin?
42. Circumcision - best not to delay til later.
43. Circumcision - what caused many cultures to ritually remove the foreskin?
Summary
SUMMARY
Conclusion
CONCLUSION
References
In Alphabetical Order
(A – I)(J – R)(S – Z)
Brochures
Brochures, circumcision information guide.
Anti Circumcision
Anti-circumcision lobby groups.
Links & Resources
Circumcision websites & online discussion groups.
BOOK: "In Favour of Circumcision".
About the Author - Professor Brian J. Morris.
Adult circumcision stories - testimonials and more.